ALL WALES PRACTICE GUIDE
To be used in conjunction with the Wales Safeguarding Procedures
This guide is primarily for practitioners working with children (up to the age of 18).
This includes those working in early years, social care, education, health, the police, youth offending and youth, community and family support services (including the third sector) and foster care and residential care.
Safeguarding children is a responsibility shared by everyone in contact with children.
The Wales Safeguarding Procedures support individuals and agencies across Wales to understand their roles and responsibilities in keeping children and adults safe. They support a consistent approach to safeguarding practice and procedures.
This practice guide provides additional information about safeguarding responses where a child is affected by domestic abuse. It should be used in conjunction with the Wales Safeguarding Procedures.
Effective safeguarding arrangements in every local authority area should be underpinned by two key principles:
safeguarding is everyone’s responsibility: for services to be effective each practitioner and organisation must play their full part both individually and in collaboration; and
a child-centred approach: for services to be effective they should be based on a clear understanding of the personal outcomes for the child and what matters to them. The rights of the child should be central to the approach and their best interests should always be paramount.
There are some issues which are common across safeguarding practice guides and some which are specific to the safeguarding issue being considered here:
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) guarantees every child the right to grow up healthy, happy and safe. This includes to be protected from harm and be appropriately supported to recover from abuse. Practitioners and professionals should adopt A Children's Rights Approach in line with the duty of due regard to the (UNCRC) and follow National Participation Standards
Agencies must work together to provide a joined up response to safeguarding issues as set out in the Wales Safeguarding Procedures.
There is a statutory Duty to Report Children at Risk on relevant partners under Section 130 of the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014. Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014 Safeguarding Summary
Information sharing is central to good safeguarding practice. Practitioners must share information in accordance with data protection legislation. Data protection legislation allows for the sharing of information and should not be automatically used as a reason for not doing so. One of the specific circumstances which provides for information sharing is in order to prevent abuse or serious harm to others. When information is not shared in a timely and effective way, decisions about how to respond may be ill informed and this can lead to poor safeguarding practice and leave children at risk of harm.
Our response to safeguarding issues should be proportionate, child centred and based on the individual needs and circumstances of the child. Children need to be meaningfully involved in the planning of their care and support.
There is well established evidence that exposure to domestic abuse can and does cause significant harm to children.1 The Adoption and Children Act 2002 extended the definition of significant harm to include ‘impairment suffered from seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another’. This recognises the fact that witnessing domestic violence can have a serious impact on children’s emotional well-being and development.
We know that sensory impaired and disabled children are at an increased risk of being abused compared with their non-disabled / non-sensory impaired peers. They are also less likely to receive the protection and support they need when they have been abused. Practitioners and professionals should explicitly recognise the increased vulnerability of sensory impaired and disabled children to abuse and neglect, as well as the barriers they may face, especially around communication and provide for any additional safeguards needed to protect them.
Practitioners should familiarise themselves with the culture and beliefs of those families they work with. Practitioners should not be afraid to ask about particular behaviours and the reasons for them in a sensitive manner and should never overlook potential harmful practices on the basis of cultural sensitivity.
All practitioners must be alert to the possibility of the child being at risk of harm regardless of the setting they are living in, whether in foster care, adoptive placements or a children’s home. Children in placements or those who are adopted will have relationships that may include foster carers, adoptive parents, birth parents, siblings or other birth relatives. These relationships and any contact may be positive and welcomed or undesired and deemed a risk. Children’s past experience of abuse and neglect may leave them at risk of having emotional, behavioural and mental health difficulties, which may continue to make them vulnerable.
Children should be seen and heard. Evidence from Child Practice Reviews has highlighted the need for children to meet on their own with practitioners, away from parents and carers in an environment where they feel safe, so that the child can speak about the impact that the circumstances which have prompted safeguarding concerns are having on them. There are too many cases where the child was not seen or asked their views or feelings, or where this did not happen enough. Providing time and space to listen directly to children supports a child-centred system and promotes good safeguarding practice.2
The purpose of the Violence against Women, Domestic Abuse and Sexual Violence (Wales) Act 2015 is to improve:
Arrangements for the prevention of violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence;
Arrangements for the protection of victims of violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence;
Support for people affected by violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence.
The Act covers all forms of gender based violence in recognition that both men and women are victims of violence; threats of violence or harassment arising directly or indirectly from values, beliefs or customs relating to gender or sexual orientation; and also forced marriage. Protection is a critical aspect of this work; public services need to work together to protect those who are currently experiencing violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence from suffering any further harm, and protect any children within the family setting. A whole-systems approach to multi-agency risk management is recommended to minimise crisis management where possible and relevant.
The Violence against Women, Domestic Abuse and Sexual Violence (Wales) Act 2015 sets out that:
“abuse” means physical, sexual, psychological, emotional or financial abuse;
“domestic abuse” means abuse where the victim of it is or has been associated with the abuser;
“gender-based violence” means— a) violence, threats of violence or harassment arising directly or indirectly from values, beliefs or customs relating to gender or sexual orientation; b) female genital mutilation; c) forcing a person (whether by physical force or coercion by threats or other psychological means) to enter into a religious or civil ceremony of marriage (whether or not legally binding);
“Violence against women”, should be read as also including male victims of gender-based violence (GBV) unless the context suggests otherwise.
Peer relationship abuse is a pattern of actual or threatened acts of physical, sexual, and / or emotional abuse, perpetrated by an adolescent (between the ages of 13 and 18) against a current or former partner. Abuse may include insults, coercion, social sabotage, sexual harassment, threats and / or acts of physical or sexual abuse.
Children who are harmed and children who harm should both be treated as children who may have care and support needs, and professionals should bear in mind that a child may be a perpetrator and also a victim of violence.
It is a criminal offence in England and Wales for someone to subject someone else to coercive control. This form of abuse must be reported to the police. Coercive control3 is when a person with whom someone is personally connected, repeatedly behaves in a way which makes the victim feel controlled, dependent, isolated or scared. The following types of behaviour are common examples of coercive control:
isolating someone from their friends and family
controlling how much money someone has and how they spend it
monitoring a person’s activities and movements
repeatedly putting someone down, calling them names or telling them that they are worthless
threatening to publish information about someone or to report them to the police or the authorities
damaging a person’s property or household goods
threatening to harm or kill them or their child(ren)
forcing someone to take part in criminal activity or child abuse
Research suggests that inter-parental relationships, specifically how parents communicate and relate to each other, should be recognised as a primary influence on effective parenting practices and children’s long-term mental health and future life chances. Parents/couples who engage in and poorly resolve inter-parental conflicts put children’s mental health and long-term life chances at risk. Children of all ages can be affected by destructive inter-parental conflict, with effects evidenced across infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Although some conflict in relationships is normal, frequent, intense and poorly resolved conflict between parents can profoundly affect children at any age.4
Research conducted in recent decades, has highlighted how children’s exposure to discordant, but non-violent, conflict between parents also exerts negative effects on child development. This research suggests that we should move away from considering conflict between parents as simply violent or not violent in favour of an acknowledgment that conflicted behaviour between parents exists across a continuum of severity – ranging from hostile silence to physical violence. Intervention programmes that focus on the inter-parental relationship have the potential to mitigate the negative consequences of family stress, family conflict and family breakdown on children and parents, and help prevent the intergenerational transmission of factors that lead to disrupted family relationships and family breakdown.5
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs)6 range from suffering verbal, mental, sexual and physical abuse, to being raised in a household where domestic violence, alcohol abuse, parental separation or drug abuse is present. Evidence shows children who experience stressful and poor quality childhoods are more likely to have poor wellbeing outcomes. This includes children who have unstable home or care experiences, children who have experienced trauma and abuse, children with low self-esteem and children who are experiencing problems with education, mental health, alcohol/drug misuse or offending behaviour.
The risks of children being directly physically or sexually abused are markedly increased where children are living with domestic violence. Research indicates that between 30 to 66 % of children suffer direct abuse when living with domestic violence and highlights the extent to which children’s experiences of violence cannot be compartmentalised into single ‘abuse categories’.7
Domestic abuse undermines, and can severely damage parent -child relationship. High levels of stress as a result of ongoing abuse can severely affect the non-abusing parent’s physical and mental well-being. A review of research8 suggests that mothers’ parenting is likely to be adversely affected by domestic violence, but there is evidence that it can recover. Poor maternal mental health increases the likelihood of harm for children exposed to domestic violence. Research on the parenting of perpetrators is limited, but many struggle to acknowledge the impact of their violence on their children –interventions should address this. Social isolation, which can continue after non-abusing parents leave an abusive relationship, contributes to parenting problems and may be acute for mothers from some minority ethnic communities, mothers with disabilities, families with disabled children and homeless mothers.
Evidence from Childline counselling sessions about parental domestic abuse for children from Wales includes children who spoke about experiencing emotional abuse and/or physical abuse. Children also spoke about parental mental health and substance misuse issues and about being left alone, having to take care of themselves or having to take care of younger siblings.
Research9 suggests a high prevalence of prior abuse history and of a family history of domestic violence for children who received support because of Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE) or Harmful Sexual Behaviour (HSB). The research concludes that it is important to direct attention to the needs of children who have experienced trauma in the form of physical, sexual or emotional abuse, and who have witnessed domestic abuse. The research indicates a link between unaddressed well-being needs and later victimisation through CSE.
ACEs research10 suggests that 16% of adults in Wales grew up in households affected by domestic violence. Adults with 4 or more adverse childhood experiences were found to be 14 times more likely to have been a victim of violence over the last 12 months and to be 15 times more likely to have committed violence against another person in the last 12 month. Responding to domestic abuse and other adverse childhood experiences as soon as is possible will support children to have better well-being outcomes and prevent violence in adulthood.
Analysis11 of the Crime Survey data also finds that a higher proportion of survivors of child abuse went on to experience domestic abuse in adulthood, compared with those who suffered no childhood abuse. For example, the Crime Survey for England and Wales (2016) found that more than half (51%) of adults who were abused as children experienced domestic abuse in later life. This also means that in families where children are affected by domestic abuse, parents are also more likely to have experienced the trauma associated with abuse and other adverse childhood experiences. Many of them may not have received adequate support in relation to this.
Domestic abuse during pregnancy has serious consequences for maternal and infant health. The British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology reports that one in six pregnant women will experience domestic violence. Evidence also suggests that around 30% of domestic violence starts or worsens during pregnancy. Where abuse occurs during pregnancy, injury to the abdomen, breasts and genitals are common. It follows that domestic abuse is a factor in a significant proportion of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity.12
As part of the Healthy Child Wales programme13 during the second trimester of pregnancy, Midwives are expected to inform Health Visitors of any pregnant woman who is a first time mother or who may require additional support. The criteria include parents with pre-existing or current safeguarding concerns, including domestic abuse. If referred this may trigger an invitation for an antenatal review commencing from 28 weeks gestation. Parental expectations and preparation for parenthood are discussed and assessed to identify risk and an assessment of family resilience is conducted. The assessment and evaluation of available information will determine the level of intervention necessary to support the family; which should be discussed and agreed with the family.
Peer relationship abuse: Children from Wales contacting Childline about peer relationship abuse have talked about abuse experienced by their current partner and about abuse by ex-partners during the time of their relationship and current abuse from ex-partners. They have talked about physical, sexual and emotional abuse experienced from their partner.
Research14 indicates that young people can instigate or experience bullying, sexual harassment; other harmful sexual behaviours within educational settings and on some occasions have been drawn into abusive peer networks via school associations. Young people who do not experience peer-abuse directly can still be exposed to wider practices of bullying or harassment and harmful gender norms and stereotypes within schools, which in turn create cultures conducive to peer-on-peer abuse. Contextual Safeguarding is an approach to understanding, and responding to, young people’s experiences of significant harm beyond their families. It recognises that the different relationships that young people form in their neighbourhoods, schools and online can feature violence and abuse.15
Following the review conducted by the Sex and Relationships Education Expert Panel, the Welsh Government has taken the decision to introduce Relationships and Sexuality Education (RSE) as a statutory part of Wales’ new curriculum which will be in place from 2022. At present, SRE is a statutory part of the basic curriculum in Wales but it is down to schools to decide their approach to the subject and this sometimes doesn’t stretch beyond the biological aspects of human relationships. RSE represents a major departure from these traditional approaches because it broadens this area of study and places an emphasis on forming and maintaining healthy, happy and fulfilling relationships. The Welsh Government has also worked with Welsh Women’s Aid to develop a Good Practice Guide: A Whole Education Approach to Violence against Women, Domestic Abuse & Sexual Violence in Wales.
Research16 carried out with young people found that: violence in intimate relationships is a significant child welfare problem; girls reported a greater incidence of experiencing violence; young participants were as likely as older adolescents to experience violence. Factors for experiencing and instigating violence included child maltreatment, domestic violence and aggressive peer networks. Girls with an older partner had the highest levels of victimisation. Young people either told a friend or no one about the violence.
Child/Adolescent on parent violence and abuse (C/APVA)17 Describes a situation where a child is violent or abusive to a parent or carer (where the child is in foster care or in a kinship care placement). It is important to recognise that C/APVA is likely to involve a pattern of behaviour. This can include physical violence from an adolescent towards a parent and a number of different types of abusive behaviours, including damage to property, emotional abuse, and economic/financial abuse. Many families manage to find ways to resolve conflict without the development of abusive behaviour, but some parents and carers find themselves in need of help and support from outside the family. It should be recognised that such behaviour may be an indication that a child themselves has at some point been a witness of domestic abuse or a victim of other trauma or abuse.
We need to mark a clear boundary between C/APVAand troublesome behaviours that could be seen as falling within “normal” adolescent behaviour. C/APVA is a harmful act carried out by a child with the intention to cause physical, psychological, or financial pain or to exert power and control over a parent. Although practitioners may be required to respond to a single incident of C/APVA, it is important to gain an understanding of the pattern of behaviour behind an incident and the history of the relationship between the young person and the parent. There is some evidence that C/APVA may be particularly prevalent for adoptive families.18
All forms of domestic violence and abuse are under-reported and parents and carers, may understandably, be particularly reluctant to disclose or report violence from their child. Parents report feelings of isolation, guilt and shame surrounding their child’s violence towards them, and fear that their parenting skills may be questioned and that they will be blamed or disbelieved by those to whom they disclose the violence. Many parents worry that their victimisation will not be taken seriously or, if they are taken seriously, that they will be held to account and that their child may be taken away from them and/or criminalised. It is also important to understand the pattern of behaviour in the family unit; siblings may also be abused or be abusive. There may also be a history of domestic abuse, or current domestic abuse occurring between the parents of the young person. It is important to recognise the effects of C/APVA may have on both the parent and the child and to provide support for both.
Research19 indicates that LGBT people who experience domestic abuse, stalking and harassment and sexual violence may face specific barriers to accessing services. These include “individual barriers” related to their knowledge and perceptions, “interpersonal barriers” related to control and abuse from other people on the basis of their sexual orientation and gender identity, and “structural and cultural barriers” that relate to the way existing services have been designed with the needs of heterosexual, cisgender* women in mind.
Despite the development of positive work to tackle domestic abuse, the experience of practitioners and families shows that it can be difficult to sustain change and safe long-term outcomes. In part, this is due to difficulties in creating a cohesive and co-ordinated approach across the separate cultures, laws and practitioners of the ‘three worlds’ of victims and perpetrators; child protection and safeguarding; and child contact.20
“Ask and Act” is a process of targeted enquiry to be practiced across the relevant authorities (as named in the Violence against Women, Domestic Abuse and Sexual Violence (Wales) Act) to identify violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence. Relevant authorities are local authorities, Local Health Boards; fire and rescue authorities and National Health Service trusts. This is because the Welsh Government “Ask and Act” training programme is being rolled out to these organisations. However, should other organisations wish to adopt “Ask and Act”, there is guidance to assist them in understanding what good practice looks like and how those who work directly with people should behave during their interaction with people.
Violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence require a Public Service response. Professional confidence to identify these issues, to ask about them and to respond effectively is fundamental for good practice across the relevant authorities.
Those who disclose violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence should mirror the diversity of the population of the locality.
The Public Service has an important role to play in addressing these issues, by supporting clients and strengthening the services they receive. A more consistent approach to identifying those who experience violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence, assessing risk and referring appropriately is required across Wales.
Clients will not always tell professionals about their experience without being prompted. It is the professional’s role to consider whether it would be appropriate to ask direct and sensitive questions within a safe, confidential environment.
Clients require clarity of how their confidentiality will be treated.
Whilst never an interrogation, “Ask and Act” is not a single intervention. Every question is an opportunity to offer support. A process of targeted enquiry should include follow-up with victims beyond identification and repeat questions.
Having a conversation with a client is preferable to use of a screening tool. A general question about someone’s experience of abuse may lead to a disclosure of several forms of abuse.
Partnerships between Public Service providers and local specialist providers should be solidified in order to provide more comprehensive delivery of policy and practice.
Implementation of a process of “Ask and Act” must be accompanied and supported by training and leadership.
Missed opportunities to identify violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence are missed opportunities to prevent further abuse, identify risk to children and save lives.
Practitioners coming into contact with a parent or child where they think domestic abuse is an issue and where after discussing the case with a manager and/or safeguarding lead it is felt that the case is not a child at risk case should still take action.
Speaking to the non-abusing parent about preventative family support services and violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence (VAWDASV) services is important and with the consent of that parent a referral should be made to local services. Early intervention and prevention can potentially have a significant impact on reducing the long-term negative consequences of domestic abuse on children.21
Responding to incidents of domestic abuse when they are reported to the police: The College of Policing authorised professional practice (APP) on domestic abuse22 sets out that officers investigating domestic abuse incidents should identify whether a child was present when the incident occurred, or whether a child is ordinarily resident at the address where it occurred. When officers do not see children, they should ask if children are resident at the address and should look for signs of children, such as clothing and toys. They should check bedrooms. Where they are told children are on the premises, officers should ensure they see and talk (subject to the age of the child) to each child to positively identify that they are safe and well.
Police will conduct a Safe and Well Check and complete a Public Protection Notification (PPN) or their force equivalent which shares information surrounding the child and incident with relevant partner agencies. Responding to domestic abuse is not just a matter for the police. Safe and Well checks do not guarantee that a child is unaffected by domestic abuse and do no replace processes for children at risk.
Operation Encompass is an approach involving a partnership between a local authority and a police authority to safeguard and support those children who have witnessed and/or been present at the time of a domestic abuse incident. Following such an incident taking place, children will often arrive at school distressed and unprepared. Operation Encompass aims to ensure that appropriate school staff are made aware at the earliest possible stage in order to provide relevant and tailored support to children in a way that means that they feel safe and included. Following an incident of domestic abuse where a child was present the police inform the child’s school and Social Services. Schools provide a range of responses including consideration of a co-ordinated support package around the child and family – such as Team Around the Family. The approach has already been adopted in some areas of Wales.
If a child is at immediate risk contact the Police on 999.
If any agency involved with the child has concerns that the child may have care and support needs that their parent(s)/carer(s) cannot meet without support they should seek parental consent to refer the child to the home local authority Information, Advice and Assistance service for an assessment of their needs.
Relevant partners have a Duty to Report Children at Risk (Section 130) under Part 7 of the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act. Section 130(4) defines a “child at risk” as a child who:
a) is experiencing or is at risk of abuse, neglect or other kinds of harm; and
b) has needs for care and support (whether or not the Local authority is meeting any of those needs).
When a child has been reported under section 130, the local authority must consider whether there are grounds for carrying out an investigation under section 47 of the Children Act 1989.
If Social Services make a decision that the report/referral received does not relate to a child at risk they will make a record of this and the rationale for their decision.
Practitioners should seek to work with Violence Against Women, Domestic Abuse and Sexual Violence services to ensure that the right support is provided to non-abusing parents in the family. Information on support is available at Live Fear Free . Live Fear Free Helpline: 0808 8010 800. Text service: 078600 77333 Email: email@example.com. Consideration should also be given to whether a non-abusing parent should be considered as an adult at risk. There is a Duty to Report Adults at Risk (Section 128) on relevant partners under Part 7 of the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act.
Social Services of the local authority in which the child is located should make a decision on the evidence on whether to convene a multi-agency strategy discussion, to inform a decision on a response for the child, including whether to hold a multi-agency Strategy Meeting.
If the initial assessment or multi-agency strategy discussion indicate that there are no grounds to proceed to a Strategy Meeting or to a Section 47 Inquiry, consideration should be given to a referral for preventative work to reduce the likelihood of future risk of harm.
Where there is already a care and support plan, child protection plan or they are a looked after child or they are in the secure estate there should be a multi-agency strategy discussion to decide on a response for the child including whether a Strategy Meeting is necessary to inform the development or review of a plan for the child.
The arrangements for carrying out a Strategy Meeting are set out in the Wales Safeguarding Procedures and in Welsh Government Working Together to Safeguard People Volume 5- Handling Individual Cases to Protect Children at Risk issued under the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act. Wherever possible the professionals and practitioners attending the MASM should have direct knowledge of the child. However, it is acknowledged that some agencies will come into contact with the child for the first time as a result of the child protection issues under consideration. Violence Against Women, Domestic Abuse and Sexual Violence services should be invited to the Strategy Meeting where relevant.
The Strategy Meeting should consider if there is any information or evidence relating to the child which, suggests that there are other specific safeguarding issues that need to be considered in addition to the primary presenting safeguarding issue. The Strategy Meeting should be child centred rather than issue based.
Social Services should also refer to practice guidance issued with the Wales Safeguarding Procedures on any other relevant related safeguarding issues.
The Strategy Meeting must result in a set of agreed actions to inform the development or review of a child protection and/or care and support plan for the child. This plan must consider the holistic needs of the child in order to promote well-being and prevent future harm and must not be focussed exclusively on the management of risk.
The role of family members as a source of support and the role of protective factors within the child’s family and wider network should be given full consideration. There should also be consideration of the need to make relevant referrals in relation to non-abusing parents and to consider the appropriateness of a referral for the perpetrator parent.
Where the Strategy Meeting results in an agreement that a plan is not required the rationale for this decision should be recorded.
Children and young people are entitled to an active offer of advocacy from a statutory Independent Professional Advocate (IPA) when they become looked after or become subject of child protection enquiries leading to an Initial Child Protection Conference. The ‘active offer’ is made directly to the child by the Advocacy Service. An ‘active offer’ is a sharing of information about the statutory right and entitlement of a child in particular circumstances to access support from an Independent Professional Advocacy Service. Information should be shared with them that includes an explanation about the role of Independent Professional Advocacy. This includes what it can and cannot do, how it operates based on their wishes and feelings, its independence and how it works solely for the child/young person, its policy on confidentiality and significant harm – it explains the statutory right of children and young people to be supported to express their views, wishes and feelings as well as their right to make a representation or complaint.
Practitioners should let children know about these organisations and how to contact them. These organisations are there for all children and young people in Wales.
Meic is the helpline service for children and young people up to the age of 25 in Wales. From finding out what’s going on in your local area to help dealing with a tricky situation, Meic will listen even when no-one else will. They won’t judge you and will help by giving you information, useful advice and the support you need to make a change. You can:
Chat to someone from Meic on-line: https://www.meiccymru.org/
Call Meic for free and talk to someone: 080880 23456
Text Meic for free on: 84001
You can contact the Children's Commissioner for Wales Investigation and Advice service which is free and confidential. It’s there as a source of help and support if children and young people or those who care for them feel that a child’s been treated unfairly. You or you parent/carer can:
Childline is a free, private and confidential service where anyone under 19 can access support and advice. The Childline website www.childline.org.uk has information and advice pages as well as tools to help you work through problems yourself. If you want to talk or chat to Childline you can:
Call Childline for free: 0800 1111
Register on-line to email Childline or chat on-line to a counsellor: www.childline.org.uk/get-support/
If you want to talk to Childline in Welsh see www.childline.org.uk/get-support/
Practitioners should let non-abusing parents know about the support they can get.
Information on support is available at Live Fear Free .
Live Fear Free Helpline: 0808 8010 800.
Text service: 078600 77333
*Cisgender is a term for people whose gender identity matches the sex that they were assigned at birth.
1 UNICEF, 2006, Behind Closed Doors: The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children, https://www.unicef.org/media/files/BehindClosedDoors.pdf
4 Harold,G; Acquah,D; H Chowdry,H; and Sellers,R (2016) What works to enhance interparental relationships and improve outcomes for children? EIF (Summary: pp 5) https://www.eif.org.uk/report/what-works-to-enhance-interparental-relationships-and-improve-outcomes-for-children/
9 Hallett,,S; Deerfield,K; and Hudson,K. (Forthcoming) The same but different? Exploring the links between trauma, sexual exploitation and harmful sexual behaviours, Awaiting publication.